The International Alliance for the Control of Scabies (IACS) is a global network
committed to the control of human scabies and the promotion of health and wellbeing
of all those living in affected communities.


Recent publications

On this page you will find a selection of recent peer-reviewed publications on the control of scabies.

Click on any of the following topics to jump directly to the relevant section:

Epidemiology & Public Health



Control Strategies and Population-based Interventions

Mite Biology and Immunology


Epidemiology & Public Health 

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A. Reviews

Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.
Romani L, Steer AC, Whitfeld MJ, Kaldor JM.
Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Aug;15(8):960-7. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00132-2
Recent, comprehensive systematic review of global scabies prevalence

The global burden of skin disease in 2010: an analysis of the prevalence and impact of skin conditions.
Hay RJ, Johns NE, Williams HC, Bolliger IW, Dellavalle RP, Margolis DJ, Marks R, Naldi L, Weinstock MA, Wulf SK, Michaud C, J L Murray C, Naghavi M.
J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Jun;134(6):1527-34. doi: 10.1038/jid.2013.446.
A break-down of the assessment of skin conditions in the global burden of disease study, scabies ranks among the 50 most prevalent diseases worldwide and contributes significantly to YLD estimates.

Epidemiology of scabies.
Fuller LC.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;26(2):123-6. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835eb851.
Summarises recent knowledge of scabies prevalence in both developed and developing settings.

Impact of scabies in resource-poor communities.
Heukelbach J, Mazigo HD, Ugbomoiko US.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;26(2):127-32. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835e847b. Overview of the current prevalence and burden of endemic scabies specifically in resource-poor and underprivileged communities with implications for control measures.

B. Research articles

The Importance of Scabies Co-Infection in the Treatment Considerations for Impetigo.
Tasani M, Tong SY, Andrews RM, Holt DC, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR, Bowen AC.
Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Nov 23.
Clinical trial in Australian indigenous community showing that the presence of scabies co-infection significantly reduced impetigo treatment efficacy

Scabies and Bacterial Superinfection among American Samoan Children, 2011-2012.
Edison L, Beaudoin A, Goh L, Introcaso CE, Martin D, Dubray C, Marrone J, Van Beneden C.
PLoS One. 2015 Oct 12;10(10):e0139336
Analysis based on prescribing data in American Samoa. Scabies incidence was 29.3/1,000 children aged ≤14 years), with 53% of those with scabies diagnosed with bacterial superinfection.

Scabies and impetigo prevalence and risk factors in Fiji: a national survey.
Romani L, Koroivueta J, Steer AC, Kama M, Kaldor JM, Wand H, Hamid M, Whitfeld MJ.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Mar 4;9(3):e0003452.
Large (>10,000) population based skin survey of 75 Fijian communities, national scabies prevalence estimated at 18.5%

Prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis among homeless in the Paris region: results from 2 random cross-sectional surveys (HYTPEAC study).
Arnaud A, Chosidow O, Detrez MA, Bitar D, Huber F, Foulet F, Le Strat Y, Vandentorren S.
Br J Dermatol. 2015 Oct 16. doi: 10.1111/bjd.14226
Interesting study of homeless populations, where a scabies prevalence of 6.4% was reported in street-dwelling residents, but only 0.4% in shelters.

Scabies outbreaks in residential care homes: factors associated with late recognition, burden and impact. A mixed methods study in England.
Hewitt KA, Nalabanda A, Cassell JA.
Epidemiol Infect. 2015 May;143(7):1542-51. doi: 10.1017/S0950268814002143.
Overview of the management of scabies outbreaks in aged care facilities, highlighting the impact of delayed diagnosis of index cases.

Features of human scabies in resource-limited settings: the Cameroon case.
Kouotou EA, Nansseu JR, Sieleunou I, Defo D, Bissek AC, Ndam EC.
BMC Dermatol. 2015 Jul 23;15:12. doi: 10.1186/s12895-015-0031-0.
Hospital based survey looking at demographic features of scabies infected participants

Clinic attendances during the first 12 months of life for Aboriginal children in five remote communities of northern Australia.
Kearns T, Clucas D, Connors C, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR, Andrews RM.
PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e58231. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058231.
Retrospective chart reviews show that scabies is one of the most common diseases encountered in Aboriginal children, with an average of 3 presentations in the first year of life.

Scabies increased the risk of chronic kidney disease: a 5-year follow-up study.
Chung SD, Wang KH, Huang CC, Lin HC.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2013 Feb 1. doi: 10.1111/jdv.12099.
A large retrospective study involving over 5000 subjects with scabies and 25,000 controls, showing that infestation with scabies increases the risk of developing chronic kidney disease.

Impaired quality of life in adults and children with scabies from an impoverished community in Brazil.
Worth C, Heukelbach J, Fengler G, Walter B, Liesenfeld O, Feldmeier H.
Int J Dermatol. 2012 Mar;51(3):275-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-4632.2011.05017.x.
Systematic description of socioemotional aspects of scabies in an endemic community.




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A. Reviews

Reflectance confocal microscopy for cutaneous infections and infestations.
Cinotti E, Perrot JL, Labeille B, Cambazard F.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Sep 21. doi: 10.1111/jdv.13254.
A review on the use of RCF for the diagnosis of scabies

Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Scabies.
Shimose L, Munoz-Price LS.
Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2013 Oct;15(5):426-31. doi: 10.1007/s11908-013-0354-0.
Article reviews current diagnostic tools.


B. Research articles

Characterization of Sarcoptes scabiei cofilin gene and assessment of recombinant cofilin protein as an antigen in indirect-ELISA for diagnosis.
Zheng Y, He R, He M, Gu X, Wang T, Lai W, Peng X, Yang G.
BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 22;16(1):21. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1353-1.
ELISA using cofilin recombinant antigen diagnosed mange in 30 infected rabbits with sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 83% respectively.

The Potential for a Blood Test for Scabies.
Arlian LG, Feldmeier H, Morgan MS.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Oct 22;9(10):e0004188. doi 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004188.
Analysed sera from 91 patients with ordinary scabies for reactivity with scabies whole mite antigen extracts. Extensive cross reactivity with house dust mite antigens was found, meaning that ELISA tests need to focus on scabies specific, clearly defined antigens.

Development of Conventional and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assays for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Scabies.
Wong SS, Poon RW, Chau S, Wong SC, To KK, Cheng VC, Fung KS, Yuen KY.
J Clin Microbiol. 2015 Jul;53(7):2095-102. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00073-15.
Real time PCR diagnostic based on COX-1 gene, higher sensitivity than microscopy.

Low-cost equipment for diagnosis and management of endemic scabies outbreaks in underserved populations.
Micali G, Lacarrubba F, Verzì AE, Nasca MR.
Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Jan 15;60(2):327-9. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciu826.
Demonstrated that low-cost video/USB microscopes performed equally well as high cost medical videodermatoscopes in the diagnosis of scabies, and may be well suited to population screening in resource poor settings.

Clinical phenotype of scabies by age.
Boralevi F, Diallo A, Miquel J, Guerin-Moreau M, Bessis D, Chiavérini C, Plantin P, Hubiche T, Maruani A, Lassalle M, Boursault L, Ezzedine K; Groupe de Recherche Clinique en Dermatologie Pédiatrique.
Pediatrics. 2014 Apr;133(4):e910-6. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-2880.
Details the specificities of age associated clinical manifestations of scabies- very useful when considering the diagnosis of scabies in children.

In vivo Imaging of Sarcoptes scabiei Infestation Using Optical Coherence Tomography.
Banzhaf CA, Themstrup L, Ring HC, Welzel J, Mogensen M, Jemec GB.
Case Rep Dermatol. 2013 Jun 1;5(2):156-62. doi: 10.1159/000352066. Print 2013 May.
Optical coherence tomography visualized S. scabiei mites, burrows, eggs and feaces in vivo at near-microscopic resolution, instantly and non-invasive.

Characterisation and analysis of thioredoxin peroxidase as a potential antigen for the serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in rabbits by dot-ELISA.
Zhang R, Zheng W, Wu X, Jise Q, Ren Y, Nong X, Gu X, Wang S, Peng X, Lai S, Yang G.
BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Jul 22;13(1):336. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-336
Expression of recombinant S. scabiei thioredoxin peroxidise, immunolocalisation and development of a dot-ELISA using purified SsTPx as a capture antigen exhibited high diagnostic efficiency.

Antibody responses to Sarcoptes scabiei apolipoprotein in a porcine model: relevance to immunodiagnosis of recent infection.
Rampton M, Walton SF, Holt DC, Pasay C, Kelly A, Currie BJ, McCarthy JS, Mounsey KE.
PLoS One. 2013 Jun 6;8(6):e65354. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065354.
Scabies antigen Sar s 14.3 provides high sensitivity for recent clinical scabies infection and may be a promising candidate molecule for a diagnostic tool to detect scabies mites in both humans and pigs.

An exploratory study demonstrating the diagnostic ability of healthcare professionals in primary care using online case studies for common skin conditions.
Tucker R, Patel M, Layton AL, Walton S.
Int J Pharm Pract. 2013 Jun 5. doi: 10.1111/ijpp.12045.
Study aiming to compare the diagnostic ability of pharmacists, nurses and general practitioners for a range of skin conditions.

The diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy for scabies.
Park JH, Kim CW, Kim SS.
Ann Dermatol. 2012 May;24(2):194-9. doi: 10.5021/ad.2012.24.2.194. Epub 2012 Apr 26.
Trial evaluating the efficacy of the skin scraping technique in combination with videodermatoscopy for the diagnosis of scabies.

The curette prep: a modification of the traditional scabies preparation.
Jacks SK, Lewis EA, Witman PM.
Pediatr Dermatol. 2012 Jul-Aug;29(4):544-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01745.x. Epub 2012 Apr 4.
Introduction of the curette as a substitution for the scalpel blade when obtaining skin scrapings.





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A. Recent reviews

Therapeutic Potential of Tea Tree Oil for Scabies.
Thomas J, Carson CF, Peterson GM, Walton SF, Hammer KA, Naunton M, Davey RC, Spelman T, Dettwiller P, Kyle G, Cooper GM, Baby KE.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Feb 3;94(2):258-66. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0515.
Review of tea tree oil as an alternative and adjunct therapy for scabies

 Treatment and control of scabies.
Mounsey KE, McCarthy JS.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;26(2):133-9. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835e1d57.
A concise summary of recent treatment trials for scabies

B. Research articles

I. Recent clinical trials of established treatments

Clinical efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of uncomplicated scabies.
Ahmad HM, Abdel-Azim ES, Abdel-Aziz RT.
Dermatol Ther. 2016 Jan;29(1):58-63. doi: 10.1111/dth.12310.
62 patient trial comparing topical and oral ivermectin. Slightly higher week 1 efficacy in topical group (87.5% vs 73.5%), but both groups required repeated treatment.

The efficacy of oral ivermectin vs. sulfur 10% ointment for the treatment of scabies.
Alipour H, Goldust M.
Ann Parasitol. 2015;61(2):79-84

Comparative study of efficacy of oral ivermectin versus some topical antiscabies drugs in the treatment of scabies.
Manjhi PK, Sinha RI, Kumar M, Sinha KI.
J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Sep;8(9):HC01-4. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2014/9092.4878.
240 patient trial comparing ivermectin, permethrin, lindane and benzyl benzoate. Ivermectin and permethrin were similarly effective (>80% improvement). 

II. Treatment considerations and case reports

Effect of high-fat meal intake on the pharmacokinetic profile of ivermectin in Japanese patients with e.
Miyajima A, Hirota T, Sugioka A, Fukuzawa M, Sekine M, Yamamoto Y, Yoshimasu T, Kigure A, Anata T, Noguchi W, Akagi K, Komoda M.
J Dermatol. 2016 Feb 26. doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.13321
13 patient trial comparing ivermectin pharmacokinetics and efficacy in fed vs fasted subjects. One of the few studies where ivermectin levels in the stratum corneum are assessed.

Metabolic acidosis in an infant associated with permethrin toxicity.
Goksugur SB, Karatas Z, Goksugur N, Bekdas M, Demircioglu F.
Pediatr Dermatol. 2015 Jan-Feb;32(1):e15-7. doi: 10.1111/pde.12473. Epub 2014 Dec 9.
Rare case report of permethrin intoxication in an infant owing to overuse

Treatment for crusted scabies: limitations and side effects of treatment with ivermectin.
Fujimoto K, Kawasaki Y, Morimoto K, Kikuchi I, Kawana S.
J Nippon Med Sch. 2014;81(3):157-63.
Case report of ivermectin treatment failure and suspected mucosal drug eruption in an elderly patient with crusted scabies

Mazzotti reaction with eosinophilia after undergoing oral ivermectin for scabies.
Ito T.
J Dermatol. 2013 Sep;40(9):776-7. doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.12243. Epub 2013 Jul 16. No abstract available
Rare case report of a Mazzotti type reaction associated with ivermectin 

A novel clinical grading scale to guide the management of crusted scabies.
Davis JS, McGloughlin S, Tong SY, Walton SF, Currie BJ.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Sep 12;7(9):e2387. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002387.
Introduction of a novel grading scale as a useful tool for the assessment and management of crusted scabies.

Treatment of scabies with oral ivermectin in 15 infants: a retrospective study on tolerance and efficacy.
Bécourt C, Marguet C, Balguerie X, Joly P.
Br J Dermatol. 2013 May 31. doi: 10.1111/bjd.12454.
Case study reporting experience on the safety and efficacy of oral ivermectin in refractory scabies in infants.

III. New therapies or formulations

Benzyl Benzoate-Loaded Microemulsion for Topical Applications: Enhanced Dermatokinetic Profile and Better Delivery Promises.
Sharma G, Dhankar G, Thakur K, Raza K, Katare OP.
AAPS PharmSciTech. 2015 Dec 15. [Epub ahead of print]
Development of microemulsion of benzyl benzoate, tested in a mouse model. Predicted to increase skin retention and depot formation with reduced irritant potential.

 Treatment of crusted scabies with acitretin.
Veraldi S, Nazzaro G, Serini SM.
Br J Dermatol. 2015 Sep;173(3):862-3. doi: 10.1111/bjd.13780. Epub 2015 Jul 14.
Interesting study of acitretin use for crusted scabies refractory to topical acaricides, where oral ivermectin was not available. Daily treatments over 8 weeks cleared infestation, presumed to be due to keratolytic activity and inhibition of filaggrin synthesis.

In vitro acaricidal activity of 1,8-cineole against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi and regulating effects on enzyme activity.
Hu Z, Chen Z, Yin Z, Jia R, Song X, Li L, Zou Y, Liang X, Li L, He C, Yin L, Lv C, Zhao L, Su G, Ye G, Shi F.
Parasitol Res. 2015 Aug;114(8):2959-67. doi: 10.1007/s00436-015-4498-8.
Confirms previous reports of acaricidal activity of 1,8 cineole, with determination of EC50 and studies to investigate mode of action in the scabies mite.

Acaricidal activity of extracts from Ligularia virgaurea against the Sarcoptes scabiei mite in vitro.
Luo B, Liao F, Hu Y, Liu XI, He Y, Wu L, Tan H, Luo L, Zhou Y, Mo Q, Deng J, Wei Y.
Exp Ther Med. 2015 Jul;10(1):247-250. Epub 2015 May 19.

Efficacy and safety of Tinospora cordifolia lotion in Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis-infected pediatric patients: A single blind, randomized controlled trial.
Castillo AL, Osi MO, Ramos JD, De Francia JL, Dujunco MU, Quilala PF.
J Pharmacol Pharmacother. 2013 Jan;4(1):39-46. doi: 10.4103/0976-500X.107668.
Small RCT undertaken in the Philippines, indicating that extracts of the medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia had a similar clinical efficacy to 5% permethrin.


Control strategies and population-based interventions

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A. Reviews and commentaries 

Prospects for Moxidectin as a new oral treatment for human scabies
Mounsey KE, Bernigaud C, Chosidow O, McCarthy JS
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Mar 17;10(3):e0004389. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004389
Reviews the feasibility of moxidectin and key research questions to support its development for the treatment of human scabies.

Scabies and Global Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases.
Currie BJ.
N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 10;373(24):2371-2. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe1511805.
Editorial accompaniment to Fijian SHIFT trial (Romani et al. N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 10;373(24):2305-13)

Interventions for preventing the spread of infestation in close contacts of people with scabies.
FitzGerald D, Grainger RJ, Reid A.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 24;2:CD009943.
Attempted systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic interventions. Did not identify any sufficiently powered RCTs to proceed, highlighting an important research gap.

The elimination of scabies: a task for our generation.
McLean FE.
Int J Dermatol. 2013 Oct;52(10):1215-23. doi: 10.1111/ijd.12101.
Increasing awareness of the long-term health consequences of scabies, and securing financial and political support is the next step towards controlling this neglected tropical disease on a global scale.

Toward the global control of human scabies: introducing the international alliance for the control of scabies.
Engelman D, Kiang K, Chosidow O, McCarthy J, Fuller C, Lammie P, Hay R, Steer A, On Behalf Of The Members Of The International Alliance For The Control Of Scabies.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013 Aug;7(8):e2167. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002167.
Viewpoint launching IACS and outlining the importance and agenda for global scabies control.

Opportunities to investigate the effects of ivermectin mass drug administration on scabies.
Engelman D, Martin DL, Hay RJ, Chosidow O, McCarthy JS, Fuller LC, Steer AC.
Parasit Vectors. 2013 Apr 17;6:106. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-106
Commentary to article below (Mohammed et al. Parasit Vectors. 2012 Dec 21;5:299.) Partnering scabies research within the evaluation and monitoring of Neglected Tropical Disease programmes could potentially increase our understanding of the epidemiology and control of scabies and its important bacterial complications.

Evaluation and management of pruritus and scabies in the elderly population.
Panuganti B, Tarbox M.
Clin Geriatr Med. 2013 May;29(2):479-99. doi: 10.1016/j.cger.2013.01.009
Scabies is a major source of outbreaks in aged care facilities, with atypical presentation making diagnosis and control a particularly difficult in elderly populations. 

Scabies: a suitable case for a global control initiative.
Hay RJ, Steer AC, Chosidow O, Currie BJ.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;26(2):107-9. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835e085b. No abstract available.
Review summarizing the current situation and future prospects regarding coordinated action to control scabies at a global level.

B. Research articles

Mass Drug Administration for Scabies Control in a Population with Endemic Disease.
Romani L, Whitfeld MJ, Koroivueta J, Kama M, Wand H, Tikoduadua L, Tuicakau M, Koroi A, Andrews R, Kaldor JM, Steer AC.
N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 10;373(24):2305-13. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1500987.
Comparative RCT of MDA with ivermectin vs permethrin vs standard care in three island communities in Fiji. Relative reduction in scabies prevalence was 94% with ivermectin, 62% with permethrin, and 49% with standard care.

Long Term Control of Scabies Fifteen Years after an Intensive Treatment Programme.
Marks M, Taotao-Wini B, Satorara L, Engelman D, Nasi T, Mabey DC, Steer AC.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Dec 1;9(12):e0004246. doi: 0.1371/journal.pntd.0004246.
Prospective follow up of Lawrence’s seminal study of ivermectin MDA in the Solomon Islands. 15 years later, extremely low prevalence of scabies and impetigo are reported, indicated that such interventions can be sustainable when combined with active case finding.

Impact of an Ivermectin Mass Drug Administration on Scabies Prevalence in a Remote Australian Aboriginal Community.
Kearns TM, Speare R, Cheng AC, McCarthy J, Carapetis JR, Holt DC, Currie BJ, Page W, Shield J, Gundjirryirr R, Bundhala L, Mulholland E, Chatfield M, Andrews RM.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Oct 30;9(10):e0004151.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004151
Before-after study of ivermectin MDA of >1000 participants in an Australian indigenous community. Reductions in scabies prevalence were not sustained, possibly due to high population mobility and a possible outbreak linked to crusted scabies.

African Program for Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2010: Impact of Annual Ivermectin Mass Treatment on Off-Target Infectious Diseases.
Krotneva SP, Coffeng LE, Noma M, Zouré HG, Bakoné L, Amazigo UV, de Vlas SJ, Stolk WA.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Sep 24;9(9):e0004051. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004051.
Modelling study that estimates annual ivermectin MDA undertaken as part of APOC has averted approximately 116,000 DALYs related to scabies.

Crusted scabies in remote Australia, a new way forward: lessons and outcomes from the East Arnhem Scabies Control Program.
Lokuge B, Kopczynski A, Woltmann A, Alvoen F, Connors C, Guyula T, Mulholland E, Cran S, Foster T, Lokuge K, Burke T, Prince S.
Med J Aust. 2014 Jun 16;200(11):644-8. Review.
Adoption of long-term case management strategy to crusted scabies, resulted in a significant reduction in recurrent episodes and fewer hospital presentations for scabies and scabies-related presentations.

Scabies community prevalence and mass drug administration in two Fijian villages.
Haar K, Romani L, Filimone R, Kishore K, Tuicakau M, Koroivueta J, Kaldor JM, Wand H, Steer A, Whitfeld M.
Int J Dermatol. 2014 Jun;53(6):739-45. doi: 10.1111/ijd.12353. Epub 2013 Oct 29.
Before-after MDA comparing benzyl benzoate and ivermectin in two Fijian villages. No significant difference between the intervention was observed, although there was significant loss to follow up.

Soil transmitted helminths and scabies in Zanzibar, Tanzania following mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis--a rapid assessment methodology to assess impact.
Mohammed KA, Deb RM, Stanton MC, Molyneux DH.
Parasit Vectors. 2012 Dec 21;5:299. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-299.
The impact of an annual ivermectin mass drug administration programme over a five year period was a 90-98% decline in soil transmitted helminths and 68-98% decline in scabies infections.


Mite biology & immunology

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a. Recent reviews

Parasitic scabies mites and associated bacteria joining forces against host complement defence.
Swe PM, Reynolds SL, Fischer K.
Parasite Immunol. 2014 Nov;36(11):585-93. doi: 10.1111/pim.12133. \

Vaccine against scabies: necessity and possibility.
Liu X, Walton S, Mounsey K.
Parasitology. 2014 May;141(6):725-32. doi: 10.1017/S0031182013002047. 
Brief overview of our understanding of the scabies immune response and prospects for vaccine development.

Novel insights into an old disease: recent developments in scabies mite biology.
Holt DC, Fischer K.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;26(2):110-5. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835eb986.
Review summarizes the recent data on knowledge of mite biology, host specificity and parasite host evasion mechanisms.

Scratching the itch: new tools to advance understanding of scabies.
Mounsey KE, McCarthy JS, Walton SF.
Trends Parasitol. 2013 Jan;29(1):35-42. doi: 10.1016/
Review summarizes recent molecular and immunologic advances on the pathogenesis and diagnosis of scabies, aiming to identify priority research areas.

Immunology of scabies and translational outcomes: identifying the missing links.
Walton SF, Oprescu FI.
Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;26(2):116-22. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32835eb8a6.
Review outlining the current knowledge status related to the immunopathology of scabies to inform future research activities in the field.

Scabies: important clinical consequences explained by new molecular studies.
Fischer K, Holt D, Currie B, Kemp D.
Adv Parasitol. 2012;79:339-73. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-398457-9.00005-6.
Review summarising some of the recent advances in basic research on scabies. 

B. Research articles

Analysis of IgE binding patterns to house dust mite allergens in scabies-endemic communities: insights for both diseases.
Walton SF, Slender A, Pizutto S, Mounsey KE, Oprescu F, Thomas WR, Hales BJ, Currie BJ.
Clin Exp Allergy. 2016 Mar;46(3):508. doi: 10.1111/cea.12713.
Study detailing cross reactive allergens between scabies and house dust mites from sera collected from patients across northern and western Australia. 

Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Scabies Mite Provides Insight into the Genetic Diversity of Individual Scabies Infections.
Mofiz E, Seemann T, Bahlo M, Holt D, Currie BJ, Fischer K, Papenfuss AT.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Feb 12;10(2):e0004384. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004384.
Sequenced the mitochondrial genome of scabies mites obtained from two crusted scabies patients and compared with those obtained from a porcine model. Suggests that only limited genetic differences may separate some human and animal mites, and that individual infestations generally show limited genetic diversity in mites. 

Immunomodulatory impression of anti and pro-inflammatory cytokines in relation to humoral immunity in human scabies.
Abd El-Aal AA, Hassan MA, Gawdat HI, Ali MA, Barakat M.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2016 Jan 26. pii: 0394632015627464
Investigated scabies specific IgG, total IgE and inflammatory cytokines in the sera of 37 suspected scabies patients. Severity of lesions was positively correlated with IgG and IgE, but negatively correlated with IL-10, supporting previous studies suggesting a key regulatory role for IL-10 in the immune response to scabies. 

A Proteomic Analysis of Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae).
Morgan MS, Arlian LG, Rider SD Jr, Grunwald WC Jr, Cool DR.
J Med Entomol. 2016 Jan 20. pii: tjv247. [Epub ahead of print]
Preliminary study of the scabies mite proteome, included identification of some previously characterised molecules including major dust mite allergen homologues. May lead to the identification of novel vaccine and diagnostic targets. 

Draft genome of the scabies mite.
Rider SD Jr, Morgan MS, Arlian LG.
Parasit Vectors. 2015 Nov 10;8:585. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-1198-2.

Sarcoptes scabiei mites in humans are distributed into three genetically distinct clades.
Andriantsoanirina V, Ariey F, Izri A, Bernigaud C, Fang F, Charrel R, Foulet F, Botterel F, Guillot J, Chosidow O, Durand R.
Clin Microbiol Infect. 2015 21(12)-1107-14.  doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2015.08.002.
Genetic survey of mites collected from patients in France. Mites clustered into three distinct clades with limited gene flow between clades. Challenges previous hypotheses that mite clustering was strictly host-species specific.

Prospective study in a porcine model of sarcoptes scabiei indicates the association of Th2 and Th17 pathways with the clinical severity of scabies.
Mounsey KE, Murray HC, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Pasay C, Holt DC, Currie BJ, Walton SF, McCarthy JS.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Mar 2;9(3):e0003498. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003498.
Transcriptional profiling of cytokines in the skin of pigs with crusted and ordinary scabies. Supports the association of Th2 responses, as well as Th17 type responses in the immunopathology of crusted scabies. 

Crusted scabies is associated with increased IL-17 secretion by skin T cells.
Liu X, Walton SF, Murray HC, King M, Kelly A, Holt DC, Currie BJ, McCarthy JS, Mounsey KE.
Parasite Immunol. 2014 Nov;36(11):594-604. doi: 10.1111/pim.12129
Prospective study profiling cellular immune responses in the blood and skin or pigs with ordinary and crusted scabies. Crusted scabies was associated with increased gamma delta T cells, CD8 T cells, IL-17 positive cells in the skin, suggesting a potential role for IL-17 therapy in the management of crusted scabies.

A scabies mite serpin interferes with complement-mediated neutrophil functions and promotes staphylococcal growth.
Swe PM, Fischer K.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Jun 19;8(6):e2928. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002928.

Scabies mites alter the skin microbiome and promote growth of opportunistic pathogens in a porcine model.
Swe PM, Zakrzewski M, Kelly A, Krause L, Fischer K.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 May 29;8(5):e2897. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002897.

Scabies mite inactive serine proteases are potent inhibitors of the human complement lectin pathway.
Reynolds SL, Pike RN, Mika A, Blom AM, Hofmann A, Wijeyewickrema LC, Kemp D, Fischer K.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 May 22;8(5):e2872. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002872. 

Identification and expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in Sarcoptes scabiei.
Cote NM, Jaworski DC, Wasala NB, Morgan MS, Arlian LG.
Exp Parasitol. 2013 Jul 4;135(1):175-181. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2013.06.012.
Study reports identification and of a Macrophage migration inhibitory factor homologue from the scabies mite. qPCR assays indicate that MIF mRNA is highly abundant in mite RNA.

Quantitative PCR-based genome size estimation of the astigmatid mites Sarcoptes scabiei, Psoroptes ovis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.
Mounsey KE, Willis C, Burgess ST, Holt DC, McCarthy J, Fischer K.
Parasit Vectors. 2012 Jan 4;5:3. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-3
This study is the first to report on the genome size and chromosome number of scabies mites.

Characterization and evaluation of a Sarcoptes scabiei allergen as a candidate vaccine.
Zhang R, Jise Q, Zheng W, Ren Y, Nong X, Wu X, Gu X, Wang S, Peng X, Lai S, Yang G.
Parasit Vectors. 2012 Aug 16;5:176. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-176.
This work describes a vaccination trial using recombinant scabies mite tropomyosin in rabbits, the first which utilizes a matched antigen, host and parasite system. 

Complement inhibitors from scabies mites promote streptococcal growth--a novel mechanism in infected epidermis?
Mika A, Reynolds SL, Pickering D, McMillan D, Sriprakash KS, Kemp DJ, Fischer K.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6(7):e1563. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001563. Epub 2012 Jul 17.
Research demonstrating the association of scabies and secondary bacterial infection at the molecular level.

Novel scabies mite serpins inhibit the three pathways of the human complement system.
Mika A, Reynolds SL, Mohlin FC, Willis C, Swe PM, Pickering DA, Halilovic V, Wijeyewickrema LC, Pike RN, Blom AM, Kemp DJ, Fischer K.
PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e40489. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040489. Epub 2012 Jul 11
This work demonstrates that intestinal scabies mite serine protease inhibitors are capable of inhibiting all three human complement pathways in vitro, likely protecting the mites from complement-mediated damage.



Last updated March 2016